How To Handle 401k Distributions

401k distributionYou’ve been contributing to a 401k plan for years. And, your employer was good enough to add some matching funds. But now that you’re getting ready to retire it’s time to start thinking about the distribution of that 401k plan. So what should you do with your 401k once you retire?

There are two sets of rules governing your 401k plan. Both the IRS and your plan administrator have a say in what you can do with the account. The IRS controls how your choices affect your taxes. The plan administrator has a say in how you invest and how you can withdraw assets.

If you’re 59 1/2 or older you can withdraw funds from your 401k without tax penalty. Under some circumstances you can withdraw a lump sum penalty free if you’re over 55. Note, you’re avoiding penalties, not ordinary income taxes. The penalty for early withdrawal is 10% of the amount withdrawn.

Some retirees want to delay taking withdrawals as long as possible. Mainly to help their savings compound without the negative effect of taxes. Generally it makes sense to delay taxes.

Beginning the year you turn 70 1/2 you must begin taking minimum distributions. The amount is related to your life expectancy. Your plan administrator can provide you with the IRS table. To get a rough estimate of your required distribution divide 1 by the number of years of your life expectancy. Then multiply that by the value of the assets in the 401k plan.

Once you retire, most financial advisors will recommend that you take your money out of the 401k plan. Either as a one time distribution or as a rollover into an IRA account. The reason is to avoid plan fees and to give you greater flexibility in investing your funds.

If you decide to keep your funds within the 401k plan you’ll need to adhere to their rules. Those rules will affect both your options for distribution and your investment choices. Check with your plan administrator to find out how to withdraw funds. Most will allow you to make periodic or regularly scheduled withdrawals. There may also be rules regarding when and how often you can change your distribution options. Some also have rules regarding minimum distributions.

As mentioned, withdrawals will be added to your taxable income unless they’re rolled over into a qualifying IRA.

For many retirees, rolling into an IRA is their best choice. You’ll have lower fees, more investment choices, similar distribution rules and still be compounding tax-free.

If you plan on taking your distribution in cash, you’ll need to do some tax planning. Taking a regular distribution will allow you to spread the taxes and keep you in the lower tax brackets. Taking a lump sum distribution could throw you into a tax bracket designed for the wealthy. Your distribution will also be reduced by a 20% withholding which you can apply to your next year’s tax bill.

A popular option is to take part or all of your funds in a distribution and purchase an annuity. There are various types of annuities. Retirees prefer ones that provide a guaranteed lifetime income. Proponents point out that with an annuity you can’t outlive your money. But you should recognize that not all annuities are indexed for inflation. Your monthly guarantee might look good today, but buy much less in 20 years if prices rise (and it’s likely they will).

No one choice is best for everyone. This might be the time to get some professional advice. The decision you make is the culmination of years of saving and will affect your finances for the rest of your life.

There are many variables to consider. How much you’ve saved. Your investment philosophy. Your income needs. Your expected longevity. Your tax situation. Even your children’s financial situation can affect your decision.

Mutual Funds 101

Mutual Funds Mutual funds carry a unique set of risks and benefits in just the same way as other investments, despite marketing that may have led you to believe otherwise. A mutual fund is an investment in securities, including bonds, stocks and other vehicles, that is funded by a pooling of money from various investors. Before you decide to invest in a mutual fund, you need to know what you`re getting and what all your options are.


Stock, Bond and Money Market


Mutual funds usually come in three distinct types. Each type has inherent drawbacks and benefits, so weigh your financial goals and risk tolerance before making a final decision.


The stock mutual fund has the potential to pull a high return but poses more risk than the other available types. With stock funds, you must consider the purpose behind the stock selection. For example, some firms bundle together stocks in a particular industry, such as medical. Others use more general selection criteria to meet a goal, such as rapid growth.


Since stocks are known to fluctuate and are fully exposed to the volatility of the market, you can lose a significant portion of your investment if the fund stocks tank or the market itself dives. Get familiar with the fund manager`s aim behind the stock selection and evaluate current stock rates and histories for those securities included in the funds.


A bond fund is often less risky than a stock fund but carries more risk and a higher gain potential than a money market vehicle. Bond funds vary dramatically in type, from `junk bonds` issued by weakened or new companies to municipal bonds from local governments.


Junk bonds naturally carry a lot of risk but have a higher gain potential. A new company may take off unexpectedly, earning you a big return on your investment. On the other hand, if the business fails, your fund`s value will drop. Municipal bonds from a stable city will cost more but carry less risk than a bond from a city that is struggling. Since the risks and benefits vary greatly by bond type, you`ll need to consider all the angles before investing in a bond fund.


A money market mutual fund, not to be confused with a money market bank account, is normally the mutual fund type that carries the lowest risk and gain potentials. Federal regulations restrict money market funds to safe bets, such as short-term investments in high quality vehicles. While you won`t have the opportunity to gain as much as you could under a stock or bond fund, money market funds may be a good option for you if you`re testing the waters or have a low loss tolerance.


Know the Fees


Your mutual fund choice is subject to fees charged by the managing entity. Know what all the fees are associated with the funds you`re considering so you can compare rates across different providers.


You may have to pay a percentage fee upfront or when you sell. Some funds charge a management fee instead of an upfront or back end percentage. Other costs are deducted from the total investment pool itself, as found under the managing entity`s fee table in the prospectus. While you won`t pay an individual bill for those other costs, excessive fee taking from the entire pool can hurt the fund`s performance.


Selecting a managing entity can be almost as difficult as deciding the fund type. Price alone shouldn`t be the deciding factor, as you need a fund that is managed well to protect your investment and earn a return. Look at feedback from Finance Community about the fund managers you`re considering and review past performance before making a decision.